Role of Probiotics in Human Gut Microbiome-Associated Diseases

Many clinical trials have shown that probiotics can shape the intestinal microbiota, potentially controlling multiple bowel diseases and promoting overall wellness.

Probiotics have been suggested to improve overall health and immunity. The human gut microbiota is now thought to play a role in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease. Surprisingly, probiotic food consumption has been shown to improve the prognosis and management of these diseases.

Concept of Probiotics and Their Potential Benefits

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO) define probiotics as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.”

Probiotics are used constantly to improve the homeostasis of internal microbiota to maintain human intestinal health. As a result, the number of harmful bacteria that cannot survive in an acidic environment decreases, while beneficial bacteria that thrive in an acidic environment proliferate, balancing the intestinal microbiota. The connection between probiotics, gut microbiota, and disease is shown in the image.

The Homeostasis of Human Gut Microbiota and Its Potential Roles in Human Intestinal Health

The human gut microbiota is made up of complex and diverse microbial communities linked to human intestinal health. The gut microbiota is believed to be made up of 100 trillion microbial cells that perform a variety of metabolic functions for the host.

For example, the intestinal microbiota plays important roles in the degradation of plant-derived complex carbohydrates, which are not digested by the host, due to the lack of enzymes needed to degrade the structural polysaccharides present in plant material.

The large intestine is mostly made up of strict anaerobic bacteria, which can be either harmful or beneficial. Furthermore, the human intestinal microbiota can degrade and produce organic acids and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as propionate, acetate, and butyrate, which have been shown to control microbiota composition.

Furthermore, human intestinal microbiota are known to perform a variety of functions in the host, including intestinal development, homeostasis, and bacterial protection. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis contributes to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, as well as a variety of intestinal diseases such as AAD, IBD, Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and colorectal cancer (CRC).

For the host and the microbiota to coexist in a mutually beneficial relationship, the gut microbial population must be well-balanced (homeostatic). Failure to maintain gut homeostasis results in negative changes in host metabolism, which have been linked to chronic diseases such as IBD, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome.

This information comes from a study published in the Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology in September 2019.

It has been established that a microbiota imbalance contributes to the development of asthma. As a result, various factors involved in the regulation of the gut microbiome are critical in disease prevention and treatment.

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